Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.

The States signatory to the present Convention, Firmly convinced that the interests of children are of paramount importance in matters relating to their custody, desiring to protect children internationally from the harmful effects of their wrongful removal or retention and to establish procedures to ensure their prompt return to the State of their habitual residence, as well as to secure protection for rights of access, Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have agreed upon the following provisions

CHAPTER I

– SCOPE OF THE CONVENTION

Article 1 The objects of the present Convention are

– a) to secure the prompt return of children wrongfully removed to or retained in any Contracting State;

and b) to ensure that rights of custody and of access under the law of one Contracting State are effectively respected in other Contracting States.

Article 2 Contracting States shall take all appropriate measures to secure within their territories the implementation of the objects of the Convention. For this purpose they shall use the most expeditious procedures available.

Article 3 The removal or the retention of a child is to be considered wrongful where

– a) it is in breach of rights of custody attributed to a person, an institution or any other body, either jointly or alone, under the law of the State in which the child was habitually resident immediately before the removal or retention;

and b) at the time of removal or retention those rights were actually exercised, either jointly or alone, or would have been so exercised but for the removal or retention.

The rights of custody mentioned in subparagraph a above, may arise in particular by operation of law or by reason of a judicial or administrative decision, or by reason of an agreement having legal effect under the law of that State. Article 4 The Convention shall apply to any child who was habitually resident in a Contracting State immediately before any breach of custody or access rights.

The Convention shall cease to apply when the child attains the age of 16 years.

Article 5 For the purposes of this Convention

– a) `rights of custody’ shall include rights relating to the care of the person of the child and, in particular, the right to determine the child’s place of residence;

b) `rights of access’ shall include the right to take a child for a limited period of time to a place other than the child’s habitual residence.

CHAPTER II – CENTRAL AUTHORITIES

Article 6

A Contracting State shall designate a Central Authority to discharge the duties which are imposed by the Convention upon such authorities. Federal States, States with more than one system of law or States having autonomous territorial organizations shall be free to appoint more than one Central Authority and to specify the territorial extent of their powers. Where a State has appointed more than one Central Authority, it shall designate the Central Authority to which applications may be addressed for transmission to the appropriate Central Authority within that State.

Article 7 Central Authorities shall cooperate with each other and promote co-operation amongst the competent authorities in their respective States to secure the prompt return of children and to achieve the other objects of this Convention. In particular, either directly or through any intermediary, they shall take all appropriate measures

– a) to discover the whereabouts of a child who has been wrongfully removed or retained;

b) to prevent further harm to the child or prejudice to interested parties by taking or causing to be taken provisional measures;

c) to secure the voluntary return of the child or to bring about an amicable resolution of the issues;

d) to exchange, where desirable, information relating to the social background of the child;

e) to provide information of a general character as to the law of their State in connection with the application of the Convention;

f) to initiate or facilitate the institution of judicial or administrative proceedings with a view to obtaining the return of the child and, in a proper case, to make arrangements for organizing or securing the effective exercise of rights of access;

g) where the circumstances so require, to provide or facilitate the provision of legal aid and advice, including the participation of legal counsel and advisers;

h) to provide such administrative arrangements as may be necessary and appropriate to secure the safe return of the child;

i) to keep other each other informed with respect to the operation of this Convention and, as far as possible, to eliminate any obstacles to its application.

CHAPTER III – RETURN OF CHILDREN

Article 8 Any person, institution or other body claiming that a child has been removed or retained in breach of custody rights may apply either to the Central Authority of the child’s habitual residence or to the Central Authority of any other Contracting State for assistance in securing the return of the child.

The application shall contain –

a) information concerning the identity of the applicant, of the child and of the person alleged to have removed or retained the child;

b) where available, the date of birth of the child;

c) the grounds on which the applicant’s claim for return of the child is based;

d) all available information relating to the whereabouts of the child and the identity of the person with whom the child is presumed to be.

The application may be accompanied or supplemented by

– e) an authenticated copy of any relevant decision or agreement;

f) a certificate or an affidavit emanating from a Central Authority, or other competent authority of the State of the child’s habitual residence, or from a qualified person, concerning the relevant law of that State;

g) any other relevant document.

Article 9 If the Central Authority which receives an application referred to in Article 8 has reason to believe that the child is in another Contracting State, it shall directly and without delay transmit the application to the Central Authority of that Contracting State and inform the requesting Central Authority, or the applicant, as the case may be.

Article 10 The Central Authority of the State where the child is shall take or cause to be taken all appropriate measures in order to obtain the voluntary return of the child.

Article 11 The judicial or administrative authorities of Contracting States shall act expeditiously in proceedings for the return of children. If the judicial or administrative authority concerned has not reached a decision within six weeks from the date of commencement of the proceedings, the applicant or the Central Authority of the requested State, on its own initiative or if asked by the Central Authority of the requesting State, shall have the right to request a statement of the reasons for the delay. If a reply is received by the Central Authority of the requested State, that Authority shall transmit the reply to the Central Authority of the requesting State, or to the applicant, as the case may be.

Article 12 Where a child has been wrongfully removed or retained in terms of Article 3 and, at the date of the commencement of the proceedings before the judicial or administrative authority of the Contracting State where the child is, a period of less than one year has elapsed from the date of the wrongful removal or retention, the authority concerned shall order the return of the child forthwith.

The judicial or administrative authority, even where the proceedings have been commenced after the expiration of the period of one year referred to in the preceding paragraph, shall also order the return of the child, unless it is demonstrated that the child is now settled in its new environment. Where the judicial or administrative authority in the requested State has reason to believe that the child has been taken to another State, it may stay the proceedings or dismiss the application for the return of the child.

Article 13 Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding Article, the judicial or administrative authority of the requested State is not bound to order the return of the child if the person, institution or other body which opposes its return establishes that

– a) the person, institution or other body having the care of the person of the child was not actually exercising the custody rights at the time of removal or retention, or had consented to or subsequently acquiesced in the removal of retention;

or b) there is a grave risk that his or her return would expose the child to physical or psychological harm or otherwise place the child in an intolerable situation.

The judicial or administrative authority may also refuse to order the return of the child if it finds that the child objects to being returned and has attained an age and degree of maturity at which it is appropriate to take account of its views. In considering the circumstances referred to in this Article, the judicial and administrative authorites shall take into account the information relating to the social background of the child provided by the Central Authority or other competent authority of the child’s habitual residence.

Article 14 In ascertaining whether there has been a wrongful removal of retention within the meaning of Article 3, the judicial or administrative authorities of the requested State may take notice directly of the law of, and of judicial or administrative decisions, formally recognized or not in the State of the habitual residence of the child, without recourse to the specific procedures for the proof of that law or for the recognition of foreign decisions which would otherwise be applicable.

Article 15 The judicial or administrative authorities of a Contracting State may, prior to the making of an order for the return of the child, request that the applicant obtain from the authorities of the State of the habitual residence of the child a decision or other determination that the removal or retention was wrongful within the meaning of Article 3 of the Convention, where such a decision or determination may be obtained in that State.

The Central Authorities of the Contracting States shall so far as practicable assist applicants to obtain such a decision or determination.

Article 16 After receiving notice of a wrongful removal or retention of a child in the sense of Article 3, the judicial or administrative authorities of the Contracting State to which the child has been removed or in which it has been retained shall not decide on the merits of rights of custody until it has been determined that the child is not to be returned under this Convention or unless an application under the Convention is not lodged within a reasonable time following receipt of the notice.

Article 17 The sole fact that a decision relating to custody has been given in or is entitled to recognition in the requested State shall not be a ground for refusing to return a child under this Convention, but the judicial or administrative authorities of the requested State may take account of the reasons for that decision in applying this Convention.

Article 18 The provisions of this Chapter do not limit the power of a judicial or administrative authority to order the return of the child at any time.

Article 19 A decision under this Convention concerning the return of the child shall not be taken to be determination on the merits of any custody issue.

Article 20 The return of the child under the provision of Article 12 may be refused if this would not be permitted by the fundamental principles of the requested State relating to the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. CHAPTER VI – RIGHTS OF ACCESS

Article 21 An application to make arrangements for organizing or securing the effective exercise of rights of access may be presented to the Central Authorities of the Contracting States in the same way as an application for the return of a child. The Central Authorities are bound by the obligations of cooperation which are set forth in Article 7 to promote the peaceful enjoyment of access rights and the fulfillment of any conditions to which the exercise of such rights may be subject. The central Authorities shall take steps to remove, as far as possible, all obstacles to the exercise of such rights. The Central Authorities, either directly or through intermediaries, may initiate or assist in the institution of proceedings with a view to organizing or protecting these rights and securing respect for the conditions to which the exercise of these rights may be subject.

Article 22 No security, bond or deposit, however described, shall be required to guarantee the payment of costs and expenses in the judicial or administrative proceedings falling within the scope of this Convention.

Article 23 No legalization or similar formality may be required in the context of this Convention.

Article 24 Any application, communication or other document sent to the Central Authority of the requested State shall be in the original language, and shall be accompanied by a translation into the official language or one of the official languages of the requested State or, where that is not feasible, a translation into French or English. However, a Contracting State may, by making a reservation in accordance with Article 42, object to the use of either French or English, but not both, in any application, communication or other document sent to its Central Authority.

Article 25 Nationals of the Contracting States and persons who are habitually resident within those States shall be entitled in matters concerned with the application of this Convention to legal aid and advice in any other Contracting State on the same conditions as if they themselves were nationals of and habitually resident in that State.

Article 26 Each Central Authority shall bear its own costs in applying this Convention. Central Authorities and other public services of Contracting States shall not impose any charges in relation to applications submitted under this Convention. In particular, they may not require any payment from the applicant towards the costs and expenses of the proceedings or, where applicable, those arising from the participation of legal counsel or advisers. However, they may require the payment of the expenses incurred or to be incurred in implementing the return of the child.

However, a Contracting State may, by making a reservation in accordance with Article 42, declare that it shall not be bound to assume any costs referred to in the preceding paragraph resulting from the participation of legal counsel or advisers or from court proceedings, except insofar as those costs may be covered by its system of legal aid and advice. Upon ordering the return of a child or issuing an order concerning rights of access under this Convention, the judicial or administrative authorities may, where appropriate, direct the person who removed or retained the child, or who prevented the exercise of rights of access, to pay necessary expenses incurred by or on behalf of the applicant, including travel expenses, any costs incurred or payments made for locating the child, the costs of legal representation of the applicant, and those of returning the child.

Article 27 When it is manifest that the requirements of this Convention are not fulfilled or that the application is otherwise not well founded, a Central Authority is not bound to accept the application. In that case, the Central Authority shall forthwith inform the applicant or the Central Authority through which the application was submitted, as the case may be, of its reasons.

Article 28 A Central Authority may require that the application be accompanied by a written authorization empowering it to act on behalf of the applicant, or to designate a representative so to act.

Article 29 This Convention shall not preclude any person, institution or body who claims that there has been a breach of custody or access rights within the meaning of Article 3 or 21 from applying directly to the judicial or administrative authorities of a Contracting State, whether or not under the provisions of this Convention.

Article 30 Any application submitted to the Central Authorities or directly to the judicial or administrative authorities of a Contracting State in accordance with the terms of this Convention, together with documents and any other information appended thereto or provided by a Central Authority, shall be admissible in the courts or administrative authorities of the Contracting States.

Article 31 In relation to a State which in matters of custody of children has two or more systems of law applicable in different territorial units

— a) any reference to habitual residence in that State shall be construed as referring to habitual residence in a territorial unit of that State;

b) any reference to the law of the State of habitual residence shall be construed as referring to the law of the territorial unit in that State where the child habitually resides.

Article 32 In relation to a State which in matters of custody of children has two or more systems of law applicable to different categories of persons, any reference to the law of that State shall be construed as referring to the legal system specified by the law of that State.

Article 33 A State within which different territorial units have their own rules of law in respect of custody of children shall not be bound to apply this Convention where a State with a unified system of law would not be bound to do so.

Article 34 This Convention shall take priority in matters within its scope over the Convention of 5 October 1961 concerning the powers of authorities and the law applicable in respect of the protection of minors, as between Parties to both Conventions. Otherwise the present Convention shall not restrict the application of an international instrument in force between the State of origin and the State addressed or other law of the State addressed for the purposes of obtaining the return of a child who has been wrongfully removed or retained or of organizing access rights.

Article 35 This Convention shall apply as between Contracting States only to wrongful removals or retentions occurring after its entry into force in those States. Where a declaration has been made under Article 39 or 40, the reference in the preceding paragraph to a Contracting State shall be taken to refer to the territorial unit or units in relation to which this Convention applies.

Article 36 Nothing in this Convention shall prevent two or more Contracting State, in order to limit the restrictions to which the return of the child may be subject, from agreeing among themselves to derogate from any provision of this Convention which may imply such a restriction. CHAPTER VI – FINAL CLAUSES

Article 37 The Convention shall be open for signature by the States which were Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law at the time of its Fourteenth Session. It shall be ratified, accepted or approved and the instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Article 38

Any other State may accede to the Convention. The instrument of accession shall be deposited with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Convention shall enter into force for a State acceding to it on the first day of the third calendar month after the deposit of its instrument of accession. The accession will have effect only as regards the relations between the acceding State and such Contracting States as will have declared their acceptance of the accession. Such a declaration will also have to be made by any Member State ratifying, accepting or approving the Convention after an accession. Such declaration shall be deposited at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; this Ministry shall forward, through diplomatic channels, a certified copy to each of the Contracting States. The Convention will enter into force as between the acceding State and the State that has declared its acceptance of the accession on the first day of the third calendar month after the deposit of the declaration of acceptance.

Article 39 Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that the Convention shall extend to all the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible, or to one or more of them. Such a declaration shall take effect at the time the Convention enters into force for that State. Such declaration, as well as any subsequent extension, shall be notified to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Article 40 If a Contracting State has two or more territorial units in which different systems of law are applicable in relation to matters dealt with in this Convention, it may at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession declare that this Convention shall extend to all its territorial units or only to one or more of them and may modify this declaration by submitting another declaration at any time. Any such declaration shall be notified to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and shall state expressly the territorial units to which the Convention applies.

Article 41 Where a Contracting State has a system of government under which executive, judicial and legislative powers are distributed between central and other authorities within that State, its signature or ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to this Convention, or its making of any declaration in terms of Article 40 shall carry no implication as to the internal distribution of powers within that State.

Article 42 Any State may, not later than the time of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or at the time of making a declaration in terms of Article 39 or 40, make one or both of the reservations provided for in Article 24 and Article 26, third paragraph. No other reservations shall be permitted. Any State may at any time withdraw a reservation it has made. The withdraw shall be notified to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The reservation shall cease to have effect on the first day of the third calendar month after the notification referred to in the preceding paragraph.

Article 43 The Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the third calendar month after the deposit of the third instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession referred to in Articles 37 and 38. Thereafter the Convention shall enter into force – 1 for each State ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to it subsequently, on the first day of the third calendar month after the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession; 2 for any territory or territorial unit to which the Convention has been extended in conformity with Article 39 or 40, on the first day of the third calendar month after the notification referred to in that Article.

Article 44 The Convention shall remain in force for five years form the date of its entry into force in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 43 even for States which subsequently have ratified, accepted, approved it or acceded to it. If there has been no denunciation, it shall be renewed tacitly every five years. Any denunciation shall be notified to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the netherlands at least six months before the expiry of the five year period. It may be limited to certain of the territories or territorial units to which the Convention applies. The denunciation shall have effect only as regards the State which has notified it. The Convention shall remain in force for the other Contracting States.

Article 45 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands shall notify the States Members of the Conference, and the States which have acceded in accordance with Article 38, of the following – 1- the signatures and ratifications, acceptances and approvals referred to in Article 37; 2- the accession referred to in Article 38; 3- the date on which the Convention enters into force in accordance with Article 43; 4- the extensions referred to in Article 39; 5- the declarations referred to in Articles 38 and 40; 6- the reservations referred to in Article 24 and Article 26, third paragraph, and the withdrawals referred to in Article 42; 7- the denunciation referred to in Article 44. In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention. Done at The Hague, on the 25th day of October, 1980, in the English and French languages, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and of which a certified copy shall be sent, through diplomatic channels, to each of the States Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law at the date of its Fourteenth Session.

 

 

 

Important Things To Check Before Hiring An Atorney

Important Things To Check Before Hiring An Atorney

One of the most important decisions you will make when preparing for a family law case is choosing an attorney. Learn about our firm to help you make  decision.

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Como anular las cláusulas multidivisas en las hipotecas

Son muchos los consumidores y usuarios que contrataron Hipotecas en Multidivisas. Durante un tiempo tuvieron una importante aceptación en nuestro país. Los Bancos aconsejaron a sus clientes indiscriminadamente la contratación de hipotecas constituidas principalmente en Yenes o Libras.
Debido a la crisis económica sufrida en España, son muchas las personas que ahora ven como el saldo deudor de su hipoteca ha aumentado a un ritmo desproporcionado, llegando incluso a quedar pendiente de amortización más de la totalidad del capital solicitado en el préstamo.
García Mariscal Abogados quiere llegar a los consumidores y usuarios clientes en general afectados por este producto bancario toxico que los Juzgados y el Tribunal Supremo ya se han pronunciado declarando la nulidad de este tipo de hipotecas.

La naturaleza y características de la hipoteca multidivisa ha sido abordada por la Sentencia del Pleno del Tribunal Supremo de 30 de junio de 2015, estableciendo entre otros términos que : “ en los últimos años, mientras que el valor de los inmuebles adquiridos en España ha sufrido una fuerte depreciación, las divisas más utilizadas en estas “hipotecas multidivisa” se han apreciado por lo que losprestamistas deben abonar cuotas más elevadas y en muchos casos deben ahora una cantidad en euros mayor que cuando suscribieron el préstamos hipotecario absolutamente desproporcionado respecto del valor del inmueble que financiaron mediante la suscripción de este tipo de préstamos. “
Así mismo también el Tribunal Supremo en la misma Sentencia establece la normativa aplicable para la determinación de establecer cuáles eran las obligaciones de información que incumbían a la entidad prestamista y a este respecto establece que : “ La hipoteca multidivisa, es un instrumento financiero derivado por cuanto que la cualificación de la obligación de una de las partes del contrato (pago de las cuotas de amortización del préstamos y el cálculo del capital pendiente de amortizar) depende de la cuantía que alcance otro valor distinto, denominado activo subyacente, que en este caso es una divisa extranjera. En tanto que instrumento financiero derivado relacionado con divisas, esta incluído en el ámbito de la Ley del Mercado Nacional de Valores de acuerdo con lo previsto en el art. 2.2 de dicha ley. Y es un instrumento financiero complejo en virtud de lo dispuesto en el art. 79.bis.8 de la Ley de Mercado de Valores en relación con el art. 2.2 de dicha Ley”.
En consecuencia (el Banco) la entidad prestamista está obligada a cumplir con los deberes de información que le impone la citada Ley de Mercado de Valores, y más concretamente en su artículo 79 (bis) enumera las obligaciones de información:
• Mantener en todo momento adecuadamente informados a sus clientes.
• Toda la información dirigida a los clientes, incluida la de carácter publicitario, deberá ser imparcial, clara y no engañosa. Las comunicaciones publicitarias deberán ser identificables con claridad como tales.
• A los clientes, se les proporcionará de manera compresible, información adecuada sobre la entidad y los servicios que presta; sobre los instrumentos financieros y las estrategias de inversión; sobre los centros de ejecución de órdenes y sobre los gastos y costes asociados de modo que les permita comprender la naturaleza y riesgos del servicio de inversión y del tipo específico de instrumento financiero que se ofrece pudiendo, por tanto, tomar decisiones sobre las inversiones con conocimiento de causa. La información podrá facilitarse en un formato normalizado.
• El cliente deberá recibir de la entidad informes adecuados sobre el servicio prestado. Cuando proceda dichos informes incluirán los costes de las operaciones y servicios realizados por cuenta del cliente.
• Las entidades que presten servicios de inversión deberán asegurarse en todo momento de que disponen de toda la información necesaria sobre sus clientes, con arreglo a los que establecen los apartados siguientes.
• Cuando se preste el servicio de asesoramiento en materia de inversiones o de gestión de carteras, la entidad obtendrá la información necesaria sobre los conocimientos y experiencia del cliente, incluidos en su caso los clientes potenciales, en el ámbito de inversión correspondiente al tipo de producto o servicio concreto de que se trate; y sobre la situación financiera y los objetivos de inversión de aquel, con la finalidad de que la entidad pueda recomendarle los servicios de inversión e instrumentos financieros que más le convengan. Cuando la entidad no obtenga esta información, no recomendará servicios de inversión o instrumentos financieros al cliente o posible cliente.
• Cuando se presten servicios de distintos de los previstos en el apartado anterior, la empresa deberá solicitar al cliente, incluido e su caso los clientes potenciales, que facilite información sobre sus conocimientos y experiencia en el ámbito de inversión correspondiente al tipo concreto de producto o servicio ofrecido o solicitado, con la finalidad de que la entidad pueda evaluar si e servicio o producto de inversión es adecuado para el cliente. La entidad entregará una copia al cliente del documento que recoja la evaluación realizada. Cuando, base a esta información, la entidad considere que el producto o el servicio de inversión no es adecuado para el cliente, se lo advertirá.
En los términos que determine le Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores, las entidades que presten servicios de inversión deberán mantener, en todo momento, un registro actualizado de clientes y productos no adecuados en el que reflejen, paracada cliente, los productos cuya conveniencia haya sido evaluado con resultado negativo.
La normativa sectorial que regula con detalle las obligaciones de información que debe cumplir la entidad bancaria sobre los productos y servicios que ofrece está constituida por: La Ley 26/1988 de 29 de julio, sobre Disciplina e Intervención de las Entidades de Crédito, y más concretamente lo recogido en su artículo 48.2 que establece las obligaciones básicas de las entidades de crédito para la protección de los legítimos intereses de su clientela.
Orden de 5 de mayo de 1994, vigente a la fecha de escritura, supone para las entidades de crédito dos obligaciones básicas:
1. La entrega del folleto informativo, regulada en el artículo 3. 1 “las entidades de crédito deberán obligatoriamente informar a quienes soliciten préstamos hipotecarios sujetos a esta Orden mediante la entrega de un folleto cuyo contenido mínimo será el establecido en el anexo I de esta norma”.
2. La entrega de oferta vinculante, regulada en el artículo.

El incumplimiento de las obligaciones y deberes establecidos en la normativa sectorial que regula con detalle las obligaciones de información que debe cumplir la entidad bancaria unas veces afectará al contenido obligacional de la relación negocial, otras incidirá en el momento de la perfección del contrato afectando a su posible validez y en otros puede implicar únicamente una infracción de carácter administrativo.

No obstante, es necesario partir de dos premisas para poder enfocar el asunto litigoso, (i) que estamos en presencia de un instrumento financiero complejo (ii) que procede clasificar a los demandantes como clientes minoristas según la redacción vigente del artículo 78 Bis 1, de la Ley de Mercado de Valores, puesto que no se les presume experiencia, conocimientos y cualificación necesarias para tomar sus propias decisiones de inversión y valorar correctamente sus riesgos.
Deben exigirse con especial rigor los deberes precontractuales de información, que debe ser exquisita, clara, precisa, exhaustiva y comprensible para el cliente no experto en cuestiones financieras.
Hay que destacar ante todo que la prueba del cumplimiento del deber de la información, cuando solo se facilita de forma de oral, no puede consistir únicamente en la manifestación del personal de la financiera, en la medida que no se puede obviar en estos casos su subjetividad como empleados de la entidad bancaria que comercializó el producto litigioso.
Cabe reseñar que en la práctica mayoría de los casos el clausurado del contrato es insuficiente para que el cliente conozca la mecánica y los riesgos que entraña la operación que se está contratando porque los usuarios de los servicios bancarios no suelen tener acceso en la mayoría de los casos a la normativa protectora evitando así dar información sobre el contenido del contrato y los riegos asumidos, incumpliendo así el requisito de la claridad, la concreción y sencillez en la redacción del clausurado del contrato. En definitiva al no cumplirse estos requisitos se debe considerar, y así lo hace la doctrina que el consentimiento no está correctamente formado, y que por tanto el mismo se emite viciado por error sustancial y excusable. Ello da lugar a que se declare la nulidad parcial de este tipo de préstamos en divisas con garantía hipotecaria.
Obviamente las entidades bancarias que comercializan este tipo de productos hipotecarios esgrimen en su defensa que por parte de los clientes se produce confirmación del contrato y por tanto consentimiento cuando;
– Se paga durante un periodo de tiempo las cuotas mensuales del préstamo
– Cuando tras experimentar un encarecimiento de su hipoteca por los periodos de apreciación de la moneda extranjera en la que está constituida la misma frente al euros, en lugar de cambiarlo a euros lo cambian a otra moneda extranjera.
– Cuando se contrata un seguro de cambio
– Cuando en lugar de manifestar la intención de desvincularse del préstamo, el cliente suscribe las carencias.
Pues bien, a este respecto debe precisarse que si conforme a lo previsto en el artículo 1.311 del Código Civil, la confirmación de un contrato anulable puede producirse tácitamente, cuando la confirmación se haga con conocimiento de causa de nulidad, habiendo ésta cesado, y el legitimado para impugnarlo ejecute un acto que implique necesariamente la voluntad de renunciarlo, debe indicarse que si bien los clientes, desde determinada fecha, eran conscientes del error padecido sobre la verdadera naturaleza de la inversión realizada y los riesgos inherentes a la misma, toda vez que estos riesgos ya se han materializado; profusamente divulgados por los medios de comunicación en los últimos años, sin embargo, no se puede reconocer que de las actuaciones que las entidades bancarias suelen esgrimir se pueda inferir necesariamente una voluntad de renunciar a la acción de la anulación del contrato en multidivisas.
La confirmación de un contrato, es una declaración de voluntad por la cual se optar por dotar al contrato viciado de una eficacia definitiva, haciendo que cese la situación de incertidumbre propia de la anulabilidad, por lo tanto, para valorar si un acto es realizado por el legitimado para ello, tiene carácter confirmatorio, hay que atender, como dice el artículo 1.311 CC, ya citado, a la voluntad del legitimado de querer confirmar el negocio anulable, inferida de manera necesaria de dicho acto. No cualquier acto posterior confirma un negocio que adolece de alguna causa de anulabilidad, sino sólo aquel que se haya realizado por el legitimado para impugnarlo con ánimo de querer purificarlo.
Siendo recurrente el argumento por las entidades bancarias que el mero pago de las cuotas de hipoteca constituye una confirmación del contrato irrefutable, la doctrina ha concluido que los afectados por este problema no abonan mensualmente las cuotas con el ánimo de confirmar el contrato, sino para evitar un perjuicio mayor que sería que la entidad bancaria procediera a la ejecución de la hipoteca por impago.
Charo Garcia Mariscal